Power

Power
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Rabu, 01 Februari 2012

electric formula


E = Voltage / I = Amps /W = Watts / PF = Power Factor / Eff = Efficiency / HP = Horsepower
AC/DC Formulas
To Find
Direct Current
AC / 1phase 
115v or 120v
AC / 1phase
208,230, or 240v
AC 3 phase
All Voltages
Amps when
Horsepower is Known
HP x 746
E x Eff
HP x 746
E x Eff X PF
HP x 746
E x Eff x PF
HP x 746
1.73 x E x Eff x PF
Amps when
Kilowatts is known
kW x 1000
E
kW x 1000
E x PF
kW x 1000
E x PF
kW x 1000
1.73 x E x PF
Amps when
kVA is known

kVA x 1000
E
kVA x 1000
E
kVA x 1000
1.73 x E
Kilowatts
I x E
1000
I x E x PF
1000
I x E x PF
1000
I x E x 1.73 PF
1000
Kilovolt-Amps

I x E
1000
I x E
1000
I x E x 1.73
1000
Horsepower
(output)
I x E x Eff
746
I x E x Eff x PF
746
I x E x Eff x PF
746
I x E x Eff x 1.73 x PF
746

Three Phase Values
For 208 volts x 1.732, use 360
For 230 volts x 1.732, use 398
For 240 volts x 1.732, use 416
For 440 volts x 1.732, use 762
For 460 volts x 1.732, use 797
For 480 Volts x 1.732, use 831
E = Voltage / I = Amps /W = Watts / PF = Power Factor / Eff = Efficiency / HP = Horsepower
AC Efficiency and Power Factor Formulas
To Find
Single Phase
Three Phase
Efficiency
746 x HP
E x I x PF
746 x HP
E x I x PF x 1.732
Power Factor
Input Watts
V x A
Input Watts
E x I x 1.732

Power - DC Circuits
Watts = E xI
Amps = W / E

Ohm's Law / Power Formulas
http://www.elec-toolbox.com/images/ohmlaw.gif
watts
amps
R = ohms
E = Volts

Voltage Drop Formulas
Single Phase
(2 or 3 wire)
VD =
2 x K x I x L
CM
K = ohms per mil foot  

(Copper = 12.9 at 75°)

(Alum = 21.2 at 75°)
Note:
value changes with temperature. See Code chapter 9, Table 8
L = Length of conductor in feet

I  = Current in conductor (amperes)

CM = Circular mil area of conductor
CM=
2K x L x I
VD
Three Phase
VD=
1.73 x K x I x L
CM
CM=
1.73 x K x L x I
VD

Calculating Motor Speed:
A squirrel cage induction motor is a constant speed device. It cannot operate for any length of time at speeds below those shown on the nameplate without danger of burning out.
To Calculate the speed of a induction motor, apply this formula:
Srpm = 120 x F
            P
Srpm = synchronous revolutions per minute.
120   = constant
F       = supply frequency (in cycles/sec)
      = number of motor winding poles
Example: What is the synchronous of a motor having 4 poles connected to a 60 hz power supply?
Srpm = 120 x F
            P
Srpm = 120 x 60
            4
Srpm = 7200
             4
Srpm = 1800 rpm

Calculating Braking Torque:
Full-load motor torque is calculated to determine the required braking torque of a motor.
To Determine braking torque of a motor, apply this formula:
T = 5252 x HP
    rpm
T      = full-load motor torque (in lb-ft)
5252 = constant (33,000 divided by 3.14 x 2 = 5252)
HP    = motor horsepower
rpm = speed of motor shaft
Example: What is the braking torque of a 60 HP, 240V motor rotating at 1725 rpm?
T = 5252 x HP
    rpm
T = 5252 x 60
     1725
T = 315,120
     1725
T = 182.7 lb-ft

Calculating Work:
Work is applying a force over a distance. Force is any cause that changes the position, motion, direction, or shape of an object. Work is done when a force overcomes a resistance. Resistance is any force that tends to hinder the movement of an object.If an applied force does not cause motion the no work is produced.
To calculate the amount of work produced, apply this formula:
W = F x D
W = work (in lb-ft)
F  = force (in lb)
D  = distance (in ft)
Example: How much work is required to carry a 25 lb bag of groceries vertically from street level to the 4th floor of a building 30' above street level?
W = F x D
W = 25 x 30
W = 750 -lb

Calculating Torque:
Torque is the force that produces rotation. It causes an object to rotate. Torque consist of a force acting on distance. Torque, like work, is measured is pound-feet (lb-ft). However, torque, unlike work, may exist even though no movement occurs.
To calculate torque, apply this formula:
F x D
T = torque (in lb-ft)
F = force (in lb)
D = distance (in ft)
Example: What is the torque produced by a 60 lb force pushing on a 3' lever arm?
F x D
60 x 3
180 lb ft

Calculating Full-load Torque:
Full-load torque is the torque to produce the rated power at full speed of the motor. The amount of torque a motor produces at rated power and full speed can be found by using a horsepower-to-torque conversion chart. When using the conversion chart, place a straight edge along the two known quantities and read the unknown quantity on the third line.
To calculate motor full-load torque, apply this formula:
T = HP x 5252
    rpm
T = torque (in lb-ft)
HP = horsepower
5252 = constant
rpm = revolutions per minute
Example: What is the FLT (Full-load torque) of a 30HP motor operating at 1725 rpm?
T = HP x 5252
    rpm
T = 30 x 5252
     1725
T = 157,560
     1725
T = 91.34 lb-ft

Calculating Horsepower:
Electrical power is rated in horsepower or watts. A horsepower is a unit of power equal to 746 watts or 33,0000 lb-ft per minute (550 lb-ft per second). A watt is a unit of measure equal to the power produced by a current of 1 amp across the potential difference of 1 volt. It is 1/746 of 1 horsepower. The watt is the base unit of electrical power. Motor power is rated in horsepower and watts.
Horsepower is used to measure the energy produced by an electric motor while doing work.
To calculate the horsepower of a motor when current and efficiency, and voltage are known, apply this formula:
HP V x I x Eff
        746
HP = horsepower
   = voltage
    = curent (amps)
Eff. = efficiency
Example: What is the horsepower of a 230v motor pulling 4 amps and having 82% efficiency?
HP V x I x Eff
        746
HP 230 x 4 x .82
        746
HP 754.4
        746
HP = 1 Hp

Eff = efficiency / HP = horsepower / V = volts / A = amps / PF = power factor
Horsepower Formulas
To Find
Use Formula
Example
Given
Find
Solution
HP
HP = I X E X Eff.
       746
240V, 20A, 85% Eff.
HP
HP = 240V x 20A x 85%
       746
HP=5.5
I
I = HP x 746
     E X Eff x PF
10HP, 240V,
90% Eff., 88% PF
I
= 10HP x 746
      240V x 90% x 88%
I = 39 A
To calculate the horsepower of a motor when the speed and torque are known, apply this formula:
HP = rpm x T(torque)
         5252(constant)
Example: What is the horsepower of a 1725 rpm motor with a FLT 3.1 lb-ft?
HP = rpm x T
         5252
HP = 1725 x 3.1
         5252
HP = 5347.5
         5252
HP = 1 hp

Calculating Synchronous Speed:
AC motors are considered constant speed motors. This is because the synchronous speed of an induction motor is based on the supply frequency and the number of poles in the motor winding. Motor are designed for 60 hz use have synchronous speeds of 3600, 1800, 1200, 900, 720, 600, 514, and 450 rpm.
To calculate synchronous speed of an induction motor, apply this formula:
rpmsyn = 120 x f
              Np
rpmsyn = synchronous speed (in rpm)
f           = supply frequency in (cycles/sec)
Np       =  number of motor poles
Example: What is the synchronous speed of a four pole motor operating at 50 hz.?
rpmsyn = 120 x f
              Np
rpmsyn = 120 x 50
              4
rpmsyn = 6000
              4
rpmsyn = 1500 rpm

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